COVID-19 assaults our immune system

In an isolated laboratory at the Icahn School of Medicine in Mount Sinai, East Harlem, virologist Benjamin never has been able to decipher how the virus that causes COVID-19 assaults our immune system, wreaking havoc like no other virus he has ever examined.

Every cell of our body shares the same DNA and single-strand RNA, which functions like a machine programming the cell to generate proteins, according to New Yorker. SARS-CoV-2 disrupts programming by replacing 60 percent of this software in every cell it infects. Just 1% of the RNA in each cell is replaced by a normal virus.

The novel coronavirus shuts down just one arm of our immune system — the one that alerts other cells to protect themselves from viral spread — while leaving the other arm to run wild. In comparison to other viruses, SARS-CoV-2 does not modulate the second immune response that sends cytokines across the body to summon white blood cells.

Reference
Researchers Discover How COVID-19 Attacks Our Immune …. https://www.newsmax.com/health/headline/immune-system-cytokine-storm-viral-spread/2020/11/03/id/995070/.

It has been more than 300 days since Chinese authorities first told the World Health Organisation

It has been more than 300 days since Chinese authorities first told the World Health Organisation that Wuhan residents were sick with a mysterious virus. Scientists discovered soon what the virus was (a coronavirus) and what it did (make people ill with a disease called COVID-19), and it spread across the globe like flames.

More than 1 million people have died worldwide, hundreds of thousands get sick every day, and the United States is the world’s most significant disease.

Researchers were still unsure how the virus spread, why people were infectious, or whether one could get it twice when we released our first guide to the coronavirus. These questions may have some residual confusion, but scientists have made some remarkable strides in responses.

Reference
The global death toll from COVID-19 surpasses 1 million – CNET. https://www.cnet.com/health/global-death-toll-from-covid-19-surpasses-1-million/

Resistance to Covid-19 infection remains for at least five months

Resistance to Covid-19 infection remains for at least five months, investigators reported — and probably lengthier than that.

While the study may seem perplexing and contradictory to a comparable report out of Britain this week, it is not. People’s bodies generate an army of immune substances in response to an infection, and many are complicated at first, succumbing off quickly, while others develop more gradually.

The new account out Wednesday reveals 90% of men and women who recover from #Covid-19 infections maintain a stable antibody reaction.

British study demonstrates proof of subsiding immunity to Covid-19.

Although some researchers have suggested antibodies to this virus go away rapidly, experts have found just the reverse — that more than 90% of individuals who were moderately or averagely ill produce an antibody response strong adequate to counteract the virus, and the response is preserved for countless months.
This is important for successful vaccine improvement.

Can one get infected with Covid-19 two times? It is challenging
The team examined the antibody responses of more than 30,000 people who tested positive for Covid-19 at Mount Sinai’s Health System between March and October. They characterized their antibody reactions as minimal, moderate, or high. At least 90% had moderate to high amounts, or titers, of antibodies to the virus’s surge protein — the structure it uses to grip the cells it infects.

They then accurately studied 121 individuals who restored and contributed their plasma — once three months after they first produced signs, and again five months later.
Reference
Immunity to coronavirus lingers for months, study finds. https://www.cnn.com/2020/10/29/health/covid-immunity-lingers-months-wellness/index.html

A sizable English study showed the sheer number of individuals with Covid-19 antibodies declined significantly

A sizable English study showed the sheer number of individuals with Covid-19 antibodies declined significantly throughout the summer, suggesting that having the virus may well not confer long-lasting immunity from future infection.

The survey of 365,000 adults in England who tested themselves in the home using a finger-prick test showed the proportion of men and women testing positive for #Covid-19 antibodies declined by 26.5% between June 20—12 weeks following the peak of infections when looking at the country—and Sept. 28.

The outcome also suggested that folks who did not display symptoms were expected to lose detectable antibodies before they showed symptoms. The analysis, conducted by Imperial College London and Ipsos Mori polling organization, was funded because of the British government, which announced the outcome and published the analysis on Monday night. Other experts have not yet reviewed the outcome.

Doctors do not yet know whether antibodies confer any effective immunity against reinfection by Covid-19. However, just because they are doing, and the link between this survey is confirmed, it suggests the outlook of widespread, long-term herd immunity into the virus should be tough to achieve. Herd immunity occurs when enough people in a population develop an immune response, either through previous infection or vaccination, so the virus cannot spread quickly, and those who are not immune have protection.

The findings showed that 18-24-year-olds lost antibodies at a slower rate than those aged 75 and over. The littlest decline of 14.9% was of men and women aged between 18 and 24 years, together with the largest decline of 29% was of men and women aged 75 and over.

The analysis reflects earlier smaller trials and implies that antibodies into the virus decline over 6-12 months after infection, such as other seasonal coronaviruses, for instance, the common cold. The analysis does not indicate whether other kinds of immune responses—such as that contributed by so-called T cells—would help drive back reinfection.

The analysis showed that 6% of England’s population had antibodies on June 20, compared to 4.4% on Sept. 28. After September, 9% of individuals displayed antibodies in London, compared to just 1.6% in all affected regions when looking at England’s southwest.

Among ethnic groups, 13.8% of Black people tested with antibodies at end-September and 9.7% of Asians—mainly South Asians. This is compared to 3.6% of white people. Minority ethnic groups, when looking at the U.K., such as the U.S., have suffered disproportionately through the virus.
Reference
Study Shows Covid-19 Antibodies Waning Over Time, Suggesting Immunity May Wear Off. https://www.msn.com/en-us/health/medical/study-shows-covid-19-antibodies-waning-over-time-suggesting-immunity-may-wear-off/ar-BB1aqa1Z?li=BBnb7Kz

The early voting place has already generated long, long lines in many states

The early voting place has already generated long, long lines in many states, counties, and with the November election just 11 days away, many states, counties, and cities have imposed security precautions to protect voters and poll workers from contact with the coronavirus.

However, polling places still have the potential in order to become “mass gathering events for people,” the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention educated and warned the American people in an advisory released on Friday of this week, adding that measures to stop the spread of Covid-19 might be improved.

The C.D.C. based its latest suggestions on a study through 522 poll workers’ experiences in Delaware’s statewide the month of September.

Guidelines and rules issued by the agency in June recommended various ways to attenuate crowds at polling locations in the United States, including absentee voting and extended voting hours.

To cut down on disease transmission of the virus, the C.D.C. also recommended setting up physical barriers, protecting self by wearing masks between voting machines; spacing the machines aside from the other person; indicating 6-foot distances with signs or floor markings for those of you waiting in line to vote for a long time; designating separate entrances and exits for voters; the use of protective gear — masks, face shields, gloves and gowns for individuals — for poll workers assisting sick voters and those who are carriers; and allowing curbside voting for folks who are ill.

“Ensuring that ill or potential voters who may be a carrier can vote while maintaining poll worker and voter safety may be important to minimizing transmission without restricting voting rights,” the report said.
Voting in the Covid-19 Pandemic: Wear a Mask and Bring Your Pen. https://www.nytimes.com/2020/10/23/health/Covid-voting-safety.html

If Americans would quit complaining concerning face masks

If Americans would quit complaining concerning face masks and use them when they leave their homes, they could conserve well over 100,000 lives — and perhaps more than half a million — through the conclusion of February, based on a study published Friday in Nature Medicine.

The researchers viewed five circumstances for how the pandemic could play out with different levels of mask-wearing and guidelines about staying home and social distancing. All the scenarios presumed that no vaccine was accessible, nor any #medicines capable of curing the disease.

Systematically, the most effective — not to mention the least expensive and easiest — way to minimize deaths was to increase the number of individuals wearing masks.

As of Sept. 21, only 49% of Americans stated they “always” used a mask in public, corresponding to the study. If U.S. citizens do not mask up in increasing numbers, they jeopardize another round of compulsory social distancing measures that could shut businesses and schools around the country, the authors mentioned.

“The potential lifesaving benefit of maximizing mask use in the following fall and winter cannot be exaggerated,” wrote the team from the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation at the University of Washington.

The forecasts also suggest that if states continue to ease their social distancing mandates and other constraints regardless of the recent rise in #COVID-19 cases, there could be more than 1 million mortality rates in the U.S. by the end of February.

Reference
New study makes it clear: Mask wearing can save lots of lives. https://www.startribune.com/new-study-makes-it-clear-mask-wearing-can-save-lots-of-lives/572850702/

Do you believe one has some immunity from Covid-19?

One has some #immunity, but just how much and for how long are significant unanswered questions.

There is evidence that reinfection is unlikely for at least 90 days, even for people with a mild case of #COVID-19. That is how long New York City researchers found stable degrees of protective antibodies in the research of nearly 20,000 patients of the Mount Sinai Health System.

Reinfection so far happens to be rare. The most widely known example is that researchers in Hong Kong said a man had mild COVID-19 and then months later was infected again but showed no symptoms. His second infection was detected through airport testing, and researchers said genetic tests revealed slightly different strains associated with the virus.

It evidences the individuals’ disease fighting capability worked as it should. Very few #diseases leave people completely immune for life.

Antibodies are just one piece of the body’s defenses, and so they naturally wane in the long run. Moreover, often, “memory” immune cells can identify germs they previously encountered to fight them better the 2nd time around. Which will help make any repeat infections less severe.

Scientists are studying the way the other areas of the immunity system kick in with all the coronavirus.

It is unknown whether individuals who have been reinfected but show no symptoms could spread the virus to others. That is why health authorities say even those that have recovered from COVID-19 need certainly to wear a mask, keep their distance, and practice good hygiene.


Reference:
Does a flu shot reduce my chances of getting COVID-19? https://journalstar.com/news/national/does-a-flu-shot-reduce-my-chances-of-getting-covid-19-and-more-questions-answered/article_e6118375-b4c7-500f-9541-b9d1c8c866a2.html

Did you know that drinking coffee before breakfast could have negative effect on blood glucose control, study suggests?

Put down your cups. Alternatively, at minimum, put them down till at once after the morning meal.

Emerging research from the Center for Nutrition, Exercise & Metabolism at the University of Bath has revealed that drinking coffee after the breakfast is far better for having healthy blood sugar levels after a night of inadequate sleep.

Reference

Drinking coffee before breakfast could have negative effect on blood glucose control, study suggests. https://www.foxnews.com/food-drink/drinking-coffee-before-breakfast-negative

Do you believe study Finds Nearly 78% of People With Loss of Smell or Taste Had COVID-19 Antibodies?

A sense that is lost of or taste could be a hallmark sign of COVID-19, potentially without the current presence of other common symptoms, like a cough or fever.

In a brand new study posted in the journal PLOS Medicine, researchers surveyed 590 people who experienced a loss of taste or smell in the previous month. Of that group, they gave 567 tests that are COVID-19, nearly 78% tested good for antibodies to SARS-CoV-2, the novel coronavirus that triggers COVID-19.

Of the people who tested positive for antibodies, nearly 40% did not cough or fever in their illness. However, the researchers discovered that individuals who experienced just a loss of smell had been nearly three times more likely to have SARS-CoV-2 antibodies than people who had just a loss in taste. Those who possessed a loss of smell and taste had been four times more likely to have the antibodies.

Loss of smell is highly reliable indicator of Covid-19 …. https://jerseyeveningpost.com/news/uk-news/2020/10/01/loss-of-smell-is-highly-reliable-indicator-of-covid-19-infection-study/

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention modified its COVID-19

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention modified its COVID-19 advice to acknowledge the risk that the coronavirus can be carried through airborne breathing contaminants — but then modified its website once again Monday morning to take that facts down, suggesting it was still being evaluated.

Prior to it was taken down, the modified direction stated the coronavirus is most commonly dispersed “through respiratory minute droplets or small contaminants, such as those in aerosols,” which are developed when an infected individual coughs, sneezes, sings, speaks or even simply breathes, and which can stay airborne for a period of time. The virus can then disperse to different people who breathe it inside their breathing passages.

Reference:

CDC updates guidance to warn coronavirus can be transmitted through the air by breathing — but then removes it. https://www.cbsnews.com/news/cdc-covid-guidance-coronavirus-transmitted-by-breathing/