Zika has never triggered a significant human epidemic in Africa

Zika has never triggered a significant human epidemic in Africa, except in Cape Verde. Aedes aegypti spreads mainly through one species of mosquito that thrives in tropical climates around the world. Forest-dwelling types tend to feed on animals such as rodents or antelopes. On the other hand, the human-loving type likes to bite people and spends its life close to people, experts believe. The disparity in feed choice is possibly why the virus has not been such a significant problem in Africa. The research was published in Science on Thursday.
Study: African mosquitoes are more immune to infection than human-loving Latin American mosquitoes. Africa’s mosquitoes are less likely to pick up the virus from contaminated blood. According to the report, the pattern of infection is surprisingly well associated with the epidemiological pattern of infection. According to the author of the report, the results help clarify why there was a massive outbreak of the virus in Latin America. “It was almost too nice to do that. What do you think may be Africa’s success in preventing epidemics?

Reference
One Dangerous Mutation May Cause the Devastating Birth …. https://www.newsweek.com/one-dangerous-mutation-may-cause-devastating-birth-defect-tied-zika-673748
Why Does A Virus Cause Problems In One Region But Not Another? A Study Offers Insight. https://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2020/11/20/936649934/why-does-a-virus-cause-problems-in-one-region-but-not-another-a-study-offers-ins

Danish study finds that face masks provide only limited protection

Danish study finds that face masks provide only limited protection against SARS-CoV-19 infection. Researchers say findings should not be used to argue against widespread use to prevent people from infecting others. After one month, 1.8% of people wearing the masks had been infected, while 2.1% in a control group. Health experts have long said a mask provides only limited protection for the person wearing it but can dramatically reduce others’ risk.

Reference
Danish study finds face masks provide limited protection …. https://www.swissinfo.ch/eng/reuters/danish-study-finds-face-masks-provide-moderate-to-no-protection-against-covid-19/46169826

Patients with Type O or B blood spent less time in ICU than those with Type A or AB

Study: Patients with Type O or B blood spent less time in ICU than those with Type A or AB. They were also less likely to require ventilation and to have kidney failure. Study looked at 95 critically ill COVID-19 patients at hospitals in Vancouver, Canada, between February and April. Researchers did not see any link between blood type and the length of each patient’s total hospital stay.  Both new studies came out Wednesday in the journal Blood Advances.     

Reference

https://www.sciencealert.com/study-gives-more-evidence-that-blood-type-may-change-covid-19-risk-and-severity

It is possible to forget that COVID-19 is only a relatively young virus

It is possible to forget that COVID-19 is only a relatively young virus. And with that, experts are also struggling to find ways to handle it. Today, a recent report indicates that one possible cure for the virus may be found in your local pharmacy: traditional sleep aid melatonin.

The November study, which was published in the journal PLOS Biology, analyzed patient results from the Cleveland Clinic COVID-19 registry.1 Researcher found that melatonin use was related to an approximately 30% reduced risk of positive testing for SARS-CoV-2, the virus that triggers COVID-19, after age, race, smoking history, and comorbidity-adjusted scientists. The figures for people in some communities were also higher: Afro-Americans had a 52 percent reduced chance of positive results, while those with diabetes were at a 48 percent lower risk.
Reference

Researchers Identify Melatonin as Possible COVID-19 Treatment. https://www.verywellhealth.com/melatonin-possible-covid-19-treatment-5087816

Desperate to find a seemingly responsible way to host dinner parties, certain people have begun to get coronavirus tests

Desperate to find a seemingly responsible way to host dinner parties, certain people have begun to get coronavirus tests as a way to clear themselves up for dinner parties without having to wear masks or keep their distance.

Ferrer said on Monday that she had learned of groups of young adults going to get screened for coronavirus on Thursday to get negative results by Saturday morning, and then holding a dinner party on Saturday night. Such checks offer a false sense of security—and participating in this activity will also lead to a dinner party being a super-spreading occurrence that will widely disperse the extremely infectious virus.

Reference:

‘False sense of security’: L.A. County officials urge residents not to get tested for coronavirus just to socialize.https://ktla.com/news/local-news/false-sense-of-security-l-a-county-officials-urge-residents-not-to-get-tested-for-coronavirus-just-to-socialize/

With no guidance from the White House on how to react to worsening outbreaks

With no guidance from the White House on how to react to worsening outbreaks, even some previously hesitant governors are enforcing restrictions.

Gov. Doug Burgum of North Dakota, which has chronically understaffed hospitals with the highest per capita rates of new coronavirus cases and deaths in the U.S., has developed a mask mandate and new limits for indoor dining.

Gov. Michelle Lujan Grisham of New Mexico declared the nation’s most sweeping state-wide measure of the fall season, issuing a two-week “stay at home” order to begin on Monday; Gov. Kate Brown of Oregon put the state in a partial lockout for two weeks beginning on Wednesday.
These are the restrictions and mask mandates for all 50 nations.

In his first public address since losing his re-election, President Trump did not recognize growing coronavirus figures. President-elect Joe Biden called the federal response to the surge “unfortunately lacking” and encouraged Mr. Trump to do more.
Reference
Coronavirus Briefing: What Happened Today – Flipboard. https://flipboard.com/topic/travelkorea/coronavirus-briefing-what-happened-today/a-kOcvnj4wQTadMd7VaaAKEw%3Aa%3A3195393-9ebdc9bf9f%2Fnytimes.com

Fluvoxamine antidepressant avoids the deterioration of COVID-19 infections

In a clinical trial performed by the Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, fluvoxamine was associated with a placebo in 152 adult outpatients afflicted with coronavirus. They are hoping to start a more significant trial in the next few weeks.

After 15 days, none of the 80 subjects who got fluvoxamine were critically ill, although six patients who received the placebo did. Of the six, four were hospitalized for periods ranging from four to 21 days. All of them were on the ventilator for ten days.

Although the sample size was limited, the researchers say the findings are statistically significant and that fluvoxamine merits further study as a COVID-19 therapy. They are hoping to start a more significant trial in the next few weeks.

“Patients who take fluvoxamine did not experience severe respiratory issues or need hospitalization for complications with lung function,” said Eric J. Lenze, MD, of the Washington University School of Medicine. “Most of the investigational therapies for COVID-19 have been focused on very ill patients, but it is often necessary to identify treatments that keep patients from being sick enough to need extra oxygen or to have to go to the hospital. Our analysis shows that fluvoxamine can help fill that niche.”

Reference

Antidepressant may prevent severe COVID-19, U.Va. research finds. https://wtop.com/virginia/2020/11/antidepressant-may-prevent-severe-covid-19-u-va-research-finds/

How are the various styles of masks working?

How are the various styles of masks working?
Surgical Mask
Often known as a medical mask, a surgical mask is a loose-fitting disposable mask that covers the nose and mouth of the wearer from contact with droplets, splashes, and sprays that may contain germs. The surgical mask often removes huge objects out of the air. Surgical masks can protect others by reducing the exposure of the mask wearer to saliva and respiratory secretions.

Which masks are appropriate to wear?

The U.S. at this time. Food and Drug Administration has not licensed any form of surgical mask explicitly designed to protect against coronavirus, although these masks provide some protection when N95 masks are not available.

How are the various styles of masks working?
Surgical Mask
Often known as a medical mask, a surgical mask is a loose-fitting disposable mask that covers the nose and mouth of the wearer from contact with droplets, splashes, and sprays that may contain germs. The surgical mask often removes huge objects out of the air. Surgical masks can protect others by reducing the exposure of the mask wearer to saliva and respiratory secretions.

The U.S. at this time. Food and Drug Administration has not licensed any form of surgical mask explicitly designed to protect against coronavirus, although these masks provide some protection when N95 masks are not available.

Clothe masks
A fabric mask is designed to capture droplets that are emitted while the wearer speaks, coughs, or sneezes. Asking everybody to wear cloth masks will help minimize the transmission of the virus to those who have COVID-19 but don’t know it.

Cloth face coverings are more likely to minimize the transmission of the COVID-19 virus as individuals are commonly used in public settings. And countries that needed face masks, testing, quarantine, and social distance early in the pandemic have effectively delayed the spread of the virus.

While surgical and N95 masks can be in short supply and should be reserved for health care providers, face cloth and masks are easy to find or make and can be cleaned and reused.

Masks may be made from traditional materials, such as sheets of closely woven cotton. The directions are easy to find on-line. Cloth masks should contain several layers of fabric. The CDC website also provides instructions for no-saw masks made from bandannas and t-shirts.

Reference
CORE. https://core.ac.uk/display/90662761
Coronavirus drug and treatment tracker shows what could …. https://www.pennlive.com/coronavirus/2020/07/coronavirus-drug-and-treatment-tracker-shows-what-could-help-patients-with-covid-19.html

COVID-19 assaults our immune system

In an isolated laboratory at the Icahn School of Medicine in Mount Sinai, East Harlem, virologist Benjamin never has been able to decipher how the virus that causes COVID-19 assaults our immune system, wreaking havoc like no other virus he has ever examined.

Every cell of our body shares the same DNA and single-strand RNA, which functions like a machine programming the cell to generate proteins, according to New Yorker. SARS-CoV-2 disrupts programming by replacing 60 percent of this software in every cell it infects. Just 1% of the RNA in each cell is replaced by a normal virus.

The novel coronavirus shuts down just one arm of our immune system — the one that alerts other cells to protect themselves from viral spread — while leaving the other arm to run wild. In comparison to other viruses, SARS-CoV-2 does not modulate the second immune response that sends cytokines across the body to summon white blood cells.

Reference
Researchers Discover How COVID-19 Attacks Our Immune …. https://www.newsmax.com/health/headline/immune-system-cytokine-storm-viral-spread/2020/11/03/id/995070/.

It has been more than 300 days since Chinese authorities first told the World Health Organisation

It has been more than 300 days since Chinese authorities first told the World Health Organisation that Wuhan residents were sick with a mysterious virus. Scientists discovered soon what the virus was (a coronavirus) and what it did (make people ill with a disease called COVID-19), and it spread across the globe like flames.

More than 1 million people have died worldwide, hundreds of thousands get sick every day, and the United States is the world’s most significant disease.

Researchers were still unsure how the virus spread, why people were infectious, or whether one could get it twice when we released our first guide to the coronavirus. These questions may have some residual confusion, but scientists have made some remarkable strides in responses.

Reference
The global death toll from COVID-19 surpasses 1 million – CNET. https://www.cnet.com/health/global-death-toll-from-covid-19-surpasses-1-million/