The latest Covid-19 vaccines from Pfizer and Moderna

The latest Covid-19 vaccines from Pfizer and Moderna tend to be exceptionally effective at avoiding severe illness. Scientists are worried that if vaccinated people are silent spreaders of the virus, they could keep it circulating in their populations, putting unvaccinated people in danger. In certain respiratory infections, like the current coronavirus, the nose is the primary access stage. Vaccines are inserted directly into the tissues to activate the immune system to generate antibodies. This seems to be ample security to discourage the individual from being vaccinated from being sick.


Next-generation coronavirus vaccines can trigger immunity in the nose and the rest of the respiratory tract. Mucosal vaccinations are safer than intramuscular procedures to keep respiratory viruses from arising. The lungs are far more open than the nose or mouth to circulating antibodies. Vaccine studies did not produce results about how many patients became afflicted with the infection but showed no effects. The amount of the virus that you replicate in the nose can be decreased if one gets sick, says the immunologist. An informed guide to the global epidemic can be found at com/Heroes.


Coronavirus vaccinations demonstrate robust safety from being ill. Life can return to normal only when civilization as a whole has an inadequate defense against coronavirus. For the time being, even vaccinated citizens would continue to use masks to prevent indoor crowds. The Pfizer and BioNTech vaccines are given as an injection through the arm, as most traditional vaccines. The injection will not be any different from that one had previously, and there are no significant side effects. Moderna and Pfizer vaccines utilize a genetic molecule to activate the immune response. The enzyme, known as mRNA, is ultimately killed by the body. The mRNA is wrapped in an oily bubble that can fuse into a cell, enabling the molecule to slide in. The cell uses mRNA to produce coronavirus proteins that may activate the immune system. The mRNA will only survive for at most a few days until it is lost.

Reference
Here’s Why Vaccinated People Still Need to Wear a Mask. https://www.nytimes.com/2020/12/08/health/covid-vaccine-mask.html

Public health authorities and drug manufacturers need to be open regarding the side effects of coronavirus vaccine

Public health authorities and drug manufacturers need to be open regarding the side effects of coronavirus vaccines, doctors say. Doctors met with CDC advisers as states plan to administer doses as early as next month. Both Pfizer and Moderna vaccines need two doses at different intervals. Participants in the trials registered high fever, body aches, extreme headaches, day-long fatigue after the shots. “We need to make patients aware that this will not be a walk in the park,” says Dr. Sandra Fryhofer. Nurse practitioners recommend that drug manufacturers should use terms such as “response” instead of “adverse reaction” to explain side effects. “If this proves to work, people are going to toughen up,” says the nurse practitioner.

“These are immune responses,” says Stinchfield, a former member of the committee who voted. “If you feel something after vaccination, expect to feel that” Pfizer and its partner BioNTech applied for an emergency license for their coronavirus vac.

Reference

Doctors say CDC should warn people the side effects from Covid vaccine shots won’t be ‘a walk in the park’. https://www.cnbc.com/2020/11/23/covid-vaccine-cdc-should-warn-people-the-side-effects-from-shots-wont-be-walk-in-the-park-.html

Patients with Type O or B blood spent less time in ICU than those with Type A or AB

Study: Patients with Type O or B blood spent less time in ICU than those with Type A or AB. They were also less likely to require ventilation and to have kidney failure. Study looked at 95 critically ill COVID-19 patients at hospitals in Vancouver, Canada, between February and April. Researchers did not see any link between blood type and the length of each patient’s total hospital stay.  Both new studies came out Wednesday in the journal Blood Advances.     

Reference

https://www.sciencealert.com/study-gives-more-evidence-that-blood-type-may-change-covid-19-risk-and-severity

With no guidance from the White House on how to react to worsening outbreaks

With no guidance from the White House on how to react to worsening outbreaks, even some previously hesitant governors are enforcing restrictions.

Gov. Doug Burgum of North Dakota, which has chronically understaffed hospitals with the highest per capita rates of new coronavirus cases and deaths in the U.S., has developed a mask mandate and new limits for indoor dining.

Gov. Michelle Lujan Grisham of New Mexico declared the nation’s most sweeping state-wide measure of the fall season, issuing a two-week “stay at home” order to begin on Monday; Gov. Kate Brown of Oregon put the state in a partial lockout for two weeks beginning on Wednesday.
These are the restrictions and mask mandates for all 50 nations.

In his first public address since losing his re-election, President Trump did not recognize growing coronavirus figures. President-elect Joe Biden called the federal response to the surge “unfortunately lacking” and encouraged Mr. Trump to do more.
Reference
Coronavirus Briefing: What Happened Today – Flipboard. https://flipboard.com/topic/travelkorea/coronavirus-briefing-what-happened-today/a-kOcvnj4wQTadMd7VaaAKEw%3Aa%3A3195393-9ebdc9bf9f%2Fnytimes.com

How are the various styles of masks working?

How are the various styles of masks working?
Surgical Mask
Often known as a medical mask, a surgical mask is a loose-fitting disposable mask that covers the nose and mouth of the wearer from contact with droplets, splashes, and sprays that may contain germs. The surgical mask often removes huge objects out of the air. Surgical masks can protect others by reducing the exposure of the mask wearer to saliva and respiratory secretions.

Which masks are appropriate to wear?

The U.S. at this time. Food and Drug Administration has not licensed any form of surgical mask explicitly designed to protect against coronavirus, although these masks provide some protection when N95 masks are not available.

How are the various styles of masks working?
Surgical Mask
Often known as a medical mask, a surgical mask is a loose-fitting disposable mask that covers the nose and mouth of the wearer from contact with droplets, splashes, and sprays that may contain germs. The surgical mask often removes huge objects out of the air. Surgical masks can protect others by reducing the exposure of the mask wearer to saliva and respiratory secretions.

The U.S. at this time. Food and Drug Administration has not licensed any form of surgical mask explicitly designed to protect against coronavirus, although these masks provide some protection when N95 masks are not available.

Clothe masks
A fabric mask is designed to capture droplets that are emitted while the wearer speaks, coughs, or sneezes. Asking everybody to wear cloth masks will help minimize the transmission of the virus to those who have COVID-19 but don’t know it.

Cloth face coverings are more likely to minimize the transmission of the COVID-19 virus as individuals are commonly used in public settings. And countries that needed face masks, testing, quarantine, and social distance early in the pandemic have effectively delayed the spread of the virus.

While surgical and N95 masks can be in short supply and should be reserved for health care providers, face cloth and masks are easy to find or make and can be cleaned and reused.

Masks may be made from traditional materials, such as sheets of closely woven cotton. The directions are easy to find on-line. Cloth masks should contain several layers of fabric. The CDC website also provides instructions for no-saw masks made from bandannas and t-shirts.

Reference
CORE. https://core.ac.uk/display/90662761
Coronavirus drug and treatment tracker shows what could …. https://www.pennlive.com/coronavirus/2020/07/coronavirus-drug-and-treatment-tracker-shows-what-could-help-patients-with-covid-19.html