How are the various styles of masks working?

How are the various styles of masks working?
Surgical Mask
Often known as a medical mask, a surgical mask is a loose-fitting disposable mask that covers the nose and mouth of the wearer from contact with droplets, splashes, and sprays that may contain germs. The surgical mask often removes huge objects out of the air. Surgical masks can protect others by reducing the exposure of the mask wearer to saliva and respiratory secretions.

Which masks are appropriate to wear?

The U.S. at this time. Food and Drug Administration has not licensed any form of surgical mask explicitly designed to protect against coronavirus, although these masks provide some protection when N95 masks are not available.

How are the various styles of masks working?
Surgical Mask
Often known as a medical mask, a surgical mask is a loose-fitting disposable mask that covers the nose and mouth of the wearer from contact with droplets, splashes, and sprays that may contain germs. The surgical mask often removes huge objects out of the air. Surgical masks can protect others by reducing the exposure of the mask wearer to saliva and respiratory secretions.

The U.S. at this time. Food and Drug Administration has not licensed any form of surgical mask explicitly designed to protect against coronavirus, although these masks provide some protection when N95 masks are not available.

Clothe masks
A fabric mask is designed to capture droplets that are emitted while the wearer speaks, coughs, or sneezes. Asking everybody to wear cloth masks will help minimize the transmission of the virus to those who have COVID-19 but don’t know it.

Cloth face coverings are more likely to minimize the transmission of the COVID-19 virus as individuals are commonly used in public settings. And countries that needed face masks, testing, quarantine, and social distance early in the pandemic have effectively delayed the spread of the virus.

While surgical and N95 masks can be in short supply and should be reserved for health care providers, face cloth and masks are easy to find or make and can be cleaned and reused.

Masks may be made from traditional materials, such as sheets of closely woven cotton. The directions are easy to find on-line. Cloth masks should contain several layers of fabric. The CDC website also provides instructions for no-saw masks made from bandannas and t-shirts.

Reference
CORE. https://core.ac.uk/display/90662761
Coronavirus drug and treatment tracker shows what could …. https://www.pennlive.com/coronavirus/2020/07/coronavirus-drug-and-treatment-tracker-shows-what-could-help-patients-with-covid-19.html

COVID-19 assaults our immune system

In an isolated laboratory at the Icahn School of Medicine in Mount Sinai, East Harlem, virologist Benjamin never has been able to decipher how the virus that causes COVID-19 assaults our immune system, wreaking havoc like no other virus he has ever examined.

Every cell of our body shares the same DNA and single-strand RNA, which functions like a machine programming the cell to generate proteins, according to New Yorker. SARS-CoV-2 disrupts programming by replacing 60 percent of this software in every cell it infects. Just 1% of the RNA in each cell is replaced by a normal virus.

The novel coronavirus shuts down just one arm of our immune system — the one that alerts other cells to protect themselves from viral spread — while leaving the other arm to run wild. In comparison to other viruses, SARS-CoV-2 does not modulate the second immune response that sends cytokines across the body to summon white blood cells.

Reference
Researchers Discover How COVID-19 Attacks Our Immune …. https://www.newsmax.com/health/headline/immune-system-cytokine-storm-viral-spread/2020/11/03/id/995070/.

It has been more than 300 days since Chinese authorities first told the World Health Organisation

It has been more than 300 days since Chinese authorities first told the World Health Organisation that Wuhan residents were sick with a mysterious virus. Scientists discovered soon what the virus was (a coronavirus) and what it did (make people ill with a disease called COVID-19), and it spread across the globe like flames.

More than 1 million people have died worldwide, hundreds of thousands get sick every day, and the United States is the world’s most significant disease.

Researchers were still unsure how the virus spread, why people were infectious, or whether one could get it twice when we released our first guide to the coronavirus. These questions may have some residual confusion, but scientists have made some remarkable strides in responses.

Reference
The global death toll from COVID-19 surpasses 1 million – CNET. https://www.cnet.com/health/global-death-toll-from-covid-19-surpasses-1-million/

SARS-CoV-2 is that its effects on individuals differ

One thing that we know about SARS-CoV-2 is that its effects on individuals differ. This coronavirus continues to bring new shocks as the pandemic rolls on.

A team of researchers and physicians has now documented the case of one woman with leukemia who had no signs of COVID-19, but she was already shedding infectious SARS-CoV-2 particles 70 days after her first complimentary examination.

This outcome is much longer than prior reports of hospitalized adults observed shedding contagious SARS-CoV-2 virus up to 20 days after their diagnosis of COVID-19, plus other reports of individuals shedding genetic material from the virus up to 63 days after the first appearance of their symptoms.


Reference
Startling Case Study Finds Asymptomatic COVID-19 Carrier …. https://monkeyviral.com/startling-case-study-finds-asymptomatic-covid-19-carrier-who-shed-virus-for-70-days/

Some Covid-19 patients experience a long-lasting skin issues following the infection

Some Covid-19 patients experience a long-lasting skin issues following the infection, researchers from Massachusetts General Hospital are finding, including rashes, hives, and “Covid toes,” underpinning previous, limited research about a collection of new symptoms connected with Covid-19 and yet another troubling sign that for a few the herpes virus could have an enduring impact.

The research unearthed that some patients reported skin issues for as much as five months, though an average of patients only experiences observable symptoms for 12 days.

This set of Covid-19 symptoms contributes to mounting evidence that, for a few, the illness may be a long haul — lots of people are now calling this the “long Covid.”

Symptoms varied in severity, though generally mild, researchers said, you need to include rashes, hives, and chilblains, the very last of that your researchers have termed “Covid toes.”

The findings that have been presented in the EADV Virtual congress Thursday and result from studying the info of nearly 1,000 long Covid cases in 39 different countries may help scientists comprehend the body’s inflammatory reaction to Covid-19 infection.
Reference
‘Covid Toes,’ Rashes, And Hives: New Research Underpins …. https://www.forbes.com/sites/roberthart/2020/10/29/covid-toes-rashes-and-hives-new-research-underpins-covid-19s-long-term-skin-impact/

The spread of the Covid-19 among members in a family group

The spread of the Covid-19 among members in a family group after one individual is infected is “common” and occurs quickly after illness onset, relating to new research through the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

The person exposed or suspected of experiencing Covid-19 should always be isolated before getting tested, and before test outcomes get back to protect others in the home, said the analysis, published Friday when looking at the CDC’s Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

“Because prompt isolation of persons with #COVID-19 can lessen household transmission, persons who suspect which they could have COVID-19 should isolate, stay in the home, and employ an independent bedroom and bathroom if feasible,” wrote a CDC-led team of researchers.
All people in family members should also wear masks all of the time per space, the group said.

Referencehttps://www.cnn.com/2020/10/30/health/household-spread-covid-19-wellness/index.html
Household spread of Covid-19 is common and quick, a new CDC study finds. https://www.cnn.com/2020/10/30/health/household-spread-covid-19-wellness/index.html.

Resistance to Covid-19 infection remains for at least five months

Resistance to Covid-19 infection remains for at least five months, investigators reported — and probably lengthier than that.

While the study may seem perplexing and contradictory to a comparable report out of Britain this week, it is not. People’s bodies generate an army of immune substances in response to an infection, and many are complicated at first, succumbing off quickly, while others develop more gradually.

The new account out Wednesday reveals 90% of men and women who recover from #Covid-19 infections maintain a stable antibody reaction.

British study demonstrates proof of subsiding immunity to Covid-19.

Although some researchers have suggested antibodies to this virus go away rapidly, experts have found just the reverse — that more than 90% of individuals who were moderately or averagely ill produce an antibody response strong adequate to counteract the virus, and the response is preserved for countless months.
This is important for successful vaccine improvement.

Can one get infected with Covid-19 two times? It is challenging
The team examined the antibody responses of more than 30,000 people who tested positive for Covid-19 at Mount Sinai’s Health System between March and October. They characterized their antibody reactions as minimal, moderate, or high. At least 90% had moderate to high amounts, or titers, of antibodies to the virus’s surge protein — the structure it uses to grip the cells it infects.

They then accurately studied 121 individuals who restored and contributed their plasma — once three months after they first produced signs, and again five months later.
Reference
Immunity to coronavirus lingers for months, study finds. https://www.cnn.com/2020/10/29/health/covid-immunity-lingers-months-wellness/index.html

A sizable English study showed the sheer number of individuals with Covid-19 antibodies declined significantly

A sizable English study showed the sheer number of individuals with Covid-19 antibodies declined significantly throughout the summer, suggesting that having the virus may well not confer long-lasting immunity from future infection.

The survey of 365,000 adults in England who tested themselves in the home using a finger-prick test showed the proportion of men and women testing positive for #Covid-19 antibodies declined by 26.5% between June 20—12 weeks following the peak of infections when looking at the country—and Sept. 28.

The outcome also suggested that folks who did not display symptoms were expected to lose detectable antibodies before they showed symptoms. The analysis, conducted by Imperial College London and Ipsos Mori polling organization, was funded because of the British government, which announced the outcome and published the analysis on Monday night. Other experts have not yet reviewed the outcome.

Doctors do not yet know whether antibodies confer any effective immunity against reinfection by Covid-19. However, just because they are doing, and the link between this survey is confirmed, it suggests the outlook of widespread, long-term herd immunity into the virus should be tough to achieve. Herd immunity occurs when enough people in a population develop an immune response, either through previous infection or vaccination, so the virus cannot spread quickly, and those who are not immune have protection.

The findings showed that 18-24-year-olds lost antibodies at a slower rate than those aged 75 and over. The littlest decline of 14.9% was of men and women aged between 18 and 24 years, together with the largest decline of 29% was of men and women aged 75 and over.

The analysis reflects earlier smaller trials and implies that antibodies into the virus decline over 6-12 months after infection, such as other seasonal coronaviruses, for instance, the common cold. The analysis does not indicate whether other kinds of immune responses—such as that contributed by so-called T cells—would help drive back reinfection.

The analysis showed that 6% of England’s population had antibodies on June 20, compared to 4.4% on Sept. 28. After September, 9% of individuals displayed antibodies in London, compared to just 1.6% in all affected regions when looking at England’s southwest.

Among ethnic groups, 13.8% of Black people tested with antibodies at end-September and 9.7% of Asians—mainly South Asians. This is compared to 3.6% of white people. Minority ethnic groups, when looking at the U.K., such as the U.S., have suffered disproportionately through the virus.
Reference
Study Shows Covid-19 Antibodies Waning Over Time, Suggesting Immunity May Wear Off. https://www.msn.com/en-us/health/medical/study-shows-covid-19-antibodies-waning-over-time-suggesting-immunity-may-wear-off/ar-BB1aqa1Z?li=BBnb7Kz

Over 80 percent of 200 COVID-19 sufferers in a hospital in Spain have vitamin D deficiency

Over 80 percent of 200 COVID-19 sufferers in a hospital in Spain have vitamin D deficiency, relating to new research published when looking at the Endocrine Society’s Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.

Vitamin D is a hormone the kidneys generate that manages blood calcium amount and impacts the immune protection system. Vitamin D deficiency happens to be connected to many health problems, although scientific studies are still underway into why the hormone impacts other systems regarding the body. Many studies point out the beneficial affectation of vitamin D on the immune protection system, especially about protecting infections.

“One approach is always to identify and treat vitamin D deficiency, particularly in high-risk individuals, for instance, the elderly, patients with comorbidities, and nursing home residents, who will be the key target population for the COVID-19,” said study co-author José L. Hernández, Ph.D., regarding the University of Cantabria in Santander, Spain. “Vitamin D treatment should always be recommended in COVID-19 patients with lower levels of vitamin D circulating when you look at the blood because this approach could have beneficial effects both in the musculoskeletal in addition to the immune protection system.”

The investigators found that 80 percent of 216 COVID-19 patients in the Hospital Universitario Marqués de Valdecilla had vitamin D deficiency, and men had lower vitamin D levels than women. COVID-19 patients with reduce vitamin D levels also had increased serum amounts of inflammatory markers such as ferritin and D-dimer.
Reference
Over 80% of Hospitalized COVID-19 Patients Have Vitamin D Deficiency, Study Finds. https://scitechdaily.com/over-80-of-hospitalized-covid-19-patients-have-vitamin-d-deficiency-study-finds/

The early voting place has already generated long, long lines in many states

The early voting place has already generated long, long lines in many states, counties, and with the November election just 11 days away, many states, counties, and cities have imposed security precautions to protect voters and poll workers from contact with the coronavirus.

However, polling places still have the potential in order to become “mass gathering events for people,” the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention educated and warned the American people in an advisory released on Friday of this week, adding that measures to stop the spread of Covid-19 might be improved.

The C.D.C. based its latest suggestions on a study through 522 poll workers’ experiences in Delaware’s statewide the month of September.

Guidelines and rules issued by the agency in June recommended various ways to attenuate crowds at polling locations in the United States, including absentee voting and extended voting hours.

To cut down on disease transmission of the virus, the C.D.C. also recommended setting up physical barriers, protecting self by wearing masks between voting machines; spacing the machines aside from the other person; indicating 6-foot distances with signs or floor markings for those of you waiting in line to vote for a long time; designating separate entrances and exits for voters; the use of protective gear — masks, face shields, gloves and gowns for individuals — for poll workers assisting sick voters and those who are carriers; and allowing curbside voting for folks who are ill.

“Ensuring that ill or potential voters who may be a carrier can vote while maintaining poll worker and voter safety may be important to minimizing transmission without restricting voting rights,” the report said.
Voting in the Covid-19 Pandemic: Wear a Mask and Bring Your Pen. https://www.nytimes.com/2020/10/23/health/Covid-voting-safety.html