Could there be hidden immune weakness found in 14% of gravely ill COVID-19 patients?

Hidden resistant weakness found in 14% of gravely sick COVID-19 patients through the first months of the COVID-19 pandemic, boffins baffled by the disease’s ferocity have wondered or perhaps a body’s vanguard virus fighter; a molecular messenger called kind I interferon, is missing doing his thing in some severe cases. Two papers were posted online in Science this week to make sure suspicion. They reveal that in a significant minority of patients with serious COVID-19, the interferon response has been crippled by genetic flaws or rogue antibodies that encounter interferon itself.


A health care worker in protective gear collects a swab sample to be tested for the coronavirus disease.

There has been none infectious illness explained at this level by a factor within the body. Moreover, it is not an isolated cohort of Europeans. Patients are from all over the world, all ethnicities.” Another finding that 94% of the patients with interferon-attacking antibodies were male also helps explain why men face a higher risk of severe disease.


The paired studies have immediate practical implications. Long used to treat other diseases, might assist some at-risk patients, like other therapies targeted at removing the damaging antibodies. A typical antibody test could be quickly developed and return responses in hours. Those discovered to be at high risk of developing severe COVID- 19 could take precautions to prevent exposure or be prioritized for vaccination.


The findings also raise a red flag for plasma contributions from recovered patients. As it may be rich in antibodies to the virus, “convalescent plasma” is currently provided to some patients to fight the infection. However, some contributions could harbor interferon-neutralizing antibodies.

The kind I interferons are manufactured by every cell in the body and be vital leaders of the antiviral battle early in the illness. They launch an immediate, intense local response each time a virus invades a cell, triggering infected cells to create proteins that attack the virus. They also summon immune cells towards the site and alert uninfected neighboring cells to prepare their defenses.


In one study, an infectious illness geneticist and his team analyzed blood examples from 987 gravely ill patients from across the world. In 10.2% of the patients, the scientists identified antibodies that attacked and neutralized the clients’ type I interferon. A subgroup of affected clients had low or undetectable blood levels of this interferon. Lab studies confirmed the antibodies knocked on the interferon out of action, and cells exposed to the patients’ plasma did not fight invasion by the brand new coronavirus. At the least 10per cent of critical COVID-19 is an autoimmune assault.


None of the 663 individuals in a control group with mild or asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 illness had those harmful antibodies. The antibodies were also scarce in the general population, showing up in only 0.33percent greater than 1200 healthier individuals tested. “What this means is that at minimum 10% of critical COVID-19 can be an autoimmune assault from the immune system itself.


The preponderance of male patients ended up being a shock because ladies have more incredible prices of an autoimmune condition. “Women with two X chromosomes are protected, and guys, with one, are perhaps not.” Supporting that suspicion, one girl with a rare condition that silences one X chromosome was among the ill patients with autoantibodies.


If these striking results hold up, they might also assist explain the boosted vulnerability of older many people to severe COVID-19: Half the gravely sick clients with autoantibodies were older than 65.


The second paper found genetic flaws in patients that led towards the same outcome: a grossly inadequate interferon response to SARS-CoV-2 illness. The team sequenced DNA from 659 critically ill COVID-19 patients and 534 controls with a mild or asymptomatic condition. They examined 13 genes, chosen because flaws in them impair the body’s manufacturing or use of type I interferon; mutations in the genes underlie life-threatening influenza or other viral illnesses. The scientists unearthed that 3.5% of critically ill patients harbored uncommon mutations in eight of these genes. In patients for whom blood samples were available, interferon amounts were vanishingly small. No members of the control group carried any of the mutations. “This could be the first paper to pin down indisputably disease-causing mutations underlying serious COVID-19.


Many other damaging mutations, interferon related and not, may influence the development of severe COVID-19. The patients who made antibodies versus interferon or had the mutations had a brief history of life-threatening viral illnesses requiring hospitalization. “This recommends that we have been more reliant on type I interferons to defend ourselves against SARS-CoV-2 versus other viral infections.“That makes it crucial to try therapies aimed at boosting type I interferon responses.” Dozens of randomized clinical trials are now deploying interferons against SARS-CoV-2. One reported promising findings in a small group of hospitalized COVID-19 patients. However, artificial interferons will not help patients who harbor mutations that prevent interferons from working, or those with antibodies that attack them.


Some scientists caution that the interferon-neutralizing antibodies could be an effect instead compared to a cause of severe COVID-19. “It is possible that they develop during the disease. There is a strong case for causality. Preexisting blood samples from the handful of patients revealed they had the antibodies in their blood before contracting SARS-CoV-2. He contends that, in reaction to illness, it is unlikely that the body could quickly generate high levels of anti-interferon antibodies.


Reference
Hidden immune weakness found in 14% of gravely ill COVID …. https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2020/09/hidden-immune-weakness-found-14-gravely-ill-covid-19-patients

Could there be hidden immune weakness found in 14% of gravely ill COVID-19 patients?

Hidden resistant weakness found in 14% of gravely sick COVID-19 patients through the first months of the COVID-19 pandemic, boffins baffled by the disease’s ferocity have wondered or perhaps a body’s vanguard virus fighter; a molecular messenger called kind I interferon, is missing doing his thing in some severe cases. Two papers were posted online in Science this week to make sure suspicion. They reveal that in a significant minority of patients with serious COVID-19, the interferon response has been crippled by genetic flaws or rogue antibodies that encounter interferon itself.


A health care worker in protective gear collects a swab sample to be tested for the coronavirus disease.

There has been none infectious illness explained at this level by a factor within the body. Moreover, it is not an isolated cohort of Europeans. Patients are from all over the world, all ethnicities.” Another finding that 94% of the patients with interferon-attacking antibodies were male also helps explain why men face a higher risk of severe disease.


The paired studies have immediate practical implications. Long used to treat other diseases, might assist some at-risk patients, like other therapies targeted at removing the damaging antibodies. A typical antibody test could be quickly developed and return responses in hours. Those discovered to be at high risk of developing severe COVID- 19 could take precautions to prevent exposure or be prioritized for vaccination.


The findings also raise a red flag for plasma contributions from recovered patients. As it may be rich in antibodies to the virus, “convalescent plasma” is currently provided to some patients to fight the infection. However, some contributions could harbor interferon-neutralizing antibodies.

The kind I interferons are manufactured by every cell in the body and be vital leaders of the antiviral battle early in the illness. They launch an immediate, intense local response each time a virus invades a cell, triggering infected cells to create proteins that attack the virus. They also summon immune cells towards the site and alert uninfected neighboring cells to prepare their defenses.


In one study, an infectious illness geneticist and his team analyzed blood examples from 987 gravely ill patients from across the world. In 10.2% of the patients, the scientists identified antibodies that attacked and neutralized the clients’ type I interferon. A subgroup of affected clients had low or undetectable blood levels of this interferon. Lab studies confirmed the antibodies knocked on the interferon out of action, and cells exposed to the patients’ plasma did not fight invasion by the brand new coronavirus. At the least 10per cent of critical COVID-19 is an autoimmune assault.


None of the 663 individuals in a control group with mild or asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 illness had those harmful antibodies. The antibodies were also scarce in the general population, showing up in only 0.33percent greater than 1200 healthier individuals tested. “What this means is that at minimum 10% of critical COVID-19 can be an autoimmune assault from the immune system itself.


The preponderance of male patients ended up being a shock because ladies have more incredible prices of an autoimmune condition. “Women with two X chromosomes are protected, and guys, with one, are perhaps not.” Supporting that suspicion, one girl with a rare condition that silences one X chromosome was among the ill patients with autoantibodies.


If these striking results hold up, they might also assist explain the boosted vulnerability of older many people to severe COVID-19: Half the gravely sick clients with autoantibodies were older than 65.


The second paper found genetic flaws in patients that led towards the same outcome: a grossly inadequate interferon response to SARS-CoV-2 illness. The team sequenced DNA from 659 critically ill COVID-19 patients and 534 controls with a mild or asymptomatic condition. They examined 13 genes, chosen because flaws in them impair the body’s manufacturing or use of type I interferon; mutations in the genes underlie life-threatening influenza or other viral illnesses. The scientists unearthed that 3.5% of critically ill patients harbored uncommon mutations in eight of these genes. In patients for whom blood samples were available, interferon amounts were vanishingly small. No members of the control group carried any of the mutations. “This could be the first paper to pin down indisputably disease-causing mutations underlying serious COVID-19.


Many other damaging mutations, interferon related and not, may influence the development of severe COVID-19. The patients who made antibodies versus interferon or had the mutations had a brief history of life-threatening viral illnesses requiring hospitalization. “This recommends that we have been more reliant on type I interferons to defend ourselves against SARS-CoV-2 versus other viral infections.“That makes it crucial to try therapies aimed at boosting type I interferon responses.” Dozens of randomized clinical trials are now deploying interferons against SARS-CoV-2. One reported promising findings in a small group of hospitalized COVID-19 patients. However, artificial interferons will not help patients who harbor mutations that prevent interferons from working, or those with antibodies that attack them.


Some scientists caution that the interferon-neutralizing antibodies could be an effect instead compared to a cause of severe COVID-19. “It is possible that they develop during the disease. There is a strong case for causality. Preexisting blood samples from the handful of patients revealed they had the antibodies in their blood before contracting SARS-CoV-2. He contends that, in reaction to illness, it is unlikely that the body could quickly generate high levels of anti-interferon antibodies.


Reference
Hidden immune weakness found in 14% of gravely ill COVID …. https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2020/09/hidden-immune-weakness-found-14-gravely-ill-covid-19-patients

Do you believe that three scientists give their finest suggestions about how to protect oneself from COVID-19?

Within the last several months, there was a debate on the method SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, travels from a contaminated person to others. While formal guidance has often been not clear, some aerosol boffins and public health experts have maintained that the spread of this virus in aerosols traveling through the air at distances both less than and higher than 6 feet is playing a far more significant role than appreciated.


In July 239, scientists from 32 countries urged the World Health Organization (WHO) to acknowledge the workable part of airborne transmission into the spread of SARS-CoV-2.


Three times later on, who did, therefore, stating that under specific conditions, “short-range aerosol transmission, especially in specific indoor places, such as crowded and inadequately ventilated spaces over a prolonged period with contaminated persons, cannot be ruled out.”

Many scientists rejoiced on social media as soon as the CDC appeared to agree, acknowledging for the initial time in a September 18 site enhance that aerosols perform a meaningful role in the spread associated with the virus. The change stated that COVID-19 could spread “through respiratory droplets or tiny particles, such as those in aerosols, produced when an infected person coughs, sneezes, sings, talks or breathes. These particles can be inhaled into the nose, lips, airways, and lung area and cause infection. That is regarded as the primary way the virus spreads.”


However, controversy arose once more whenever, three times later, the CDC took down that guidance, saying a mistake had posted it without proper review.


The CDC website does not acknowledge that aerosols typically spread SARS-CoV-2 beyond 6 feet, instead of saying: “COVID-19 spreads mainly among individuals who have been in close contact (within about 6 feet) for a prolonged period. Spread occurs when an infected individual coughs, sneezes, or talks, and droplets from their mouth or nose are launched into the air and land in the mouths or noses of people nearby. The droplets can also be inhaled into the lungs.”

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The site claims that respiratory droplets can land on various surfaces, and individuals can become infected from touching those surfaces then pressing their eyes, nose, or mouth. It states, “Current information does not support the long-range aerosol transmission of SARS-CoV-2, such as seen with measles or tuberculosis. Short-range inhalation of aerosols is a possibility for COVID-19, as with many respiratory pathogens. However, this cannot easily be recognized from ‘droplet’ transmission based on epidemiologic patterns. Short-range transmission is a possibility, particularly in crowded medical wards and inadequately ventilated spaces.”


Confusion has surrounded the use of terms like “aerosols” and “droplets” because they have not been consistently defined. Moreover, “airborne transmission may readily spread your message “airborne” takes in special meaning for infectious condition experts and public health officials because of whether.” If SARS-CoV-2 is readily spread by airborne transmission, more rigorous infection control measures would need to be adopted, as is done with airborne diseases such as measles and tuberculosis. However, the airborne spread is playing a role with SARS-CoV-2, the role does not seem to be almost as crucial as airborne infections like measles and tuberculosis.


All this may sound like the wonky scientific discussion is deep in the weeds — and it is also — but it is significant implications as people try to figure out just how to stay safe during the pandemic. Some pieces of advice are intuitively obvious: wear a mask, wash on hands, avoid crowds, keeps one’s distance from others. Outside is safer than indoors. However, how about that “6-foot rule for maintaining social distance? If a virus can travel indoors for distances greater than 6 feet, isn’t it logical to wear a mask indoors whenever you are with people who are not part of your “pod” or “bubble?” Understanding the basic science behind how SARS-CoV-2 travels through the air should help us techniques for remaining safe. Unfortunately, there are many open questions. For example, if aerosols made by a contaminated person can float across an area, and even though the aerosols contain some viable virus, how can we all know how significant a role that mode of transmission is playing in the pandemic? Acknowledging that the science is still not set in stone, they will have generously agreed to give us their most useful suggestions about how to think about protecting ourselves, based on their current comprehension of the way SARS-CoV-2 can spread.

Clearing the atmosphere
Compared to very early thinking about the importance of transmission by contact with large respiratory droplets, it turns out that a significant way people become infected is by inhaling the virus. This is most typical of an individual who stands within 6 feet of an individual who has COVID-19 (with or without symptoms), but it can also happen from more than 6 feet away.


Viruses in small, airborne particles called aerosols can infect individuals at both close and extensive range. We could regard aerosols as cigarette smoke. As they are most concentrated close to anyone who has the disease, they could travel farther than 6 feet, linger, build up in the air, and remain infectious for hours. As a result, to lessen the chance of inhaling this virus, it is crucial to take all of this following steps:
Indoors:
Training physical distancing — the farther, the more remarkable.
Wear a nose and mouth mask whenever you are with others, even if you can keep physically distancing. Face masks lessen the amount of virus coming from those with the disease and reduce the possibility of you inhaling the virus.
Improve ventilation by opening windows. Learn how to clean the air effortlessly with methods such as filtration.

Out-of-doors:
Wear a nose and mouth mask if you cannot see distance physically by at the very least 6 feet or, preferably, more.
Go to group activities outside.

Whether you are indoors or in the open air, remember that your risk increases using the duration of other’s experience.
With the question of transmission, it ‘is not just the public that has been confused. There is also confusion among researchers, doctors, and public health officials because they have often used the words “droplets” and “aerosols” differently. To handle the confusion, participants in an

August workshop on the airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2 at the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine unanimously agreed on these definitions for respiratory droplets and aerosols:

Droplets are more extensive than 100 microns and fall to the ground within 6 feet, traveling like tiny cannonballs.
Aerosols are smaller than 100 microns, are highly concentrated close to an individual, can travel farther than six legs, and may linger and build up into the air, especially in rooms with poor ventilation.

All breathing activities, including breathing, talking, and performing, produce far more aerosols than droplets. An individual is far more likely to inhale aerosols than to be sprayed with a droplet at a short-range. The precise percentage of transmission by droplets versus aerosols is still to be determined. However, we understand epidemiologic, and other data, especially super-spreading occasions, that infection happens through aerosols’ inhalation.

Reference
Three scientists give their best advice on how to protect …. https://health4everyday.com/2020/09/three-scientists-give-their-best-advice-on-how-to-protect-yourself-from-covid-19-cbs-news/

Do You Require a High-Dose Flu Shot?

The flu vaccine is more worthwhile than ever this year, so if you’re encountering the different versions for the first time, one of them may challenge. Yes, there is a high-dose flu vaccine, and it’s one version ideal for men and women over 65

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Will You Need a High-Dose Flu Shot?
Do Not Let These Fables Distress You Away From a Flu Shot.
Flu shots work and are an advisable way to minimize the likelihood that you’ll find yourself sick this winter.


What does ‘high dose’ mean?
The way a vaccine function is to exhibit one’s immune system to a minimal bit of antigen. The antigen is something that the immune system can understand and later interact with; in many flu vaccines, the antigen is an influenza virus that has been killed and ripped into pieces. (That’s why the flu shot cannot give you the flu.)


As we age, our immune system sometimes doesn’t respond as strongly as it did when we were younger, so a regular flu vaccine may not spur as strong an immune response as we need for the vaccine to be effective. One way around this is to give more antigen. That’s the idea behind the high-dose shot: it just contains more of those virus pieces. Specifically, four times more.


Side effects are more frequent with the high-dose flu vaccine than with the regular kind, but they’re the same side benefits anyone might get from a flu shot, and like the regular flu shot, they are not usually serious. The CDC says: “The most frequent adverse events experienced during the clinical studies were mild and transient, and included problems, redness at the injection site, headache, muscle soreness, and malaise.”


If I’m over 65, do I need a high-dose flu shot?
The CDC says that any flu shot is fair if approved for people in your age group. But there are two flu vaccines are specifically for adults 65 and older.


The high-dose shot is one, and the other is an adjuvanted vaccine. Alternatively, of a raised dose of the antigen, it includes an adjuvant, an ingredient that makes your immune system reply more strongly. (The adjuvant, in this case, is squalene oil.)


There haven’t been randomized investigations testing these two vaccines to each other, the CDC declares. Still, indications offer that each vaccine works better for people over 65 (preventing the flu and minimizing hospital admissions) than the necessary vaccine.


Complications of the flu are most likely to be deep in older men, with those over 65 accounting for more than half of hospitalizations and over 70% of fatalities, according to a 2013 study. So flu shots are especially important in this age range.

Reference:
Do You Need a High-Dose Flu Shot?. https://vitals.lifehacker.com/do-you-need-a-high-dose-flu-shot-1845169504