Studying fossilized human feces

Gut microorganisms live organisms have decreased in number during the last 2,000 years. That is one of the preliminary results from studying fossilized human feces extracted from rock shelters using a genomic approach. Since the atmosphere in this may be a ton, researchers assume it could be effective for microbes to grow and change. There are more antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the modern gut microbiota. The findings may be helpful to us in understanding the implications.

Reference

Mass Extinction in The Human Gut Revealed by Fossil Remains of 2,000-Year-Old Feces. https://www.sciencealert.com/2-000-year-old-feces-fossils-reveal-mass-extinction-in-the-human-gut

Southern Indian states have declared a state of emergency

Two southern Indian states have declared a state of emergency, as coronavirus cases spread at a breakneck pace through the country and pressure increases on Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s government to enforce a national shutdown.


Bengaluru, the capital of Karnataka, has the most significant active caseload of any Indian region, with over 300,000 people. However, analysts warn that the worst is yet to come as India’s third-largest city struggles with oxygen scarcity, overcrowded hospitals, and overcrowded crematoriums. The lockout declaration in Tamil Nadu state came after a regular total of over 26,000 cases on Friday.


Since February, infections have risen dramatically in India due to increased viral varieties and government decisions to encourage large crowds to assemble for religious festivals and political rallies.


India recorded 401,078 suspected cases on Saturday, with a record high of 4,187 deaths. In India, there have been over 21.8 million reported infections and almost 240,000 deaths. Also, such drastic tolls, according to experts, are under-counted.
As his hospital strained to find more air, one doctor in Bengaluru said he had to refuse patients “left, right, and center.”


“The issue is that the demand is so high that we require continuous oxygen,” said Dr. Sanjay Gururaj, medical director at Shanti Hospital and Research Center. The hospital sends a vehicle twice a day to oxygen plants on the city’s outskirts to retrieve 12 jumbo oxygen cylinders. “This would have lasted over two weeks; now, it lasts just over a day,” he said.


The state’s oxygen scarcity led the Supreme Court to ask the federal government to raise the amount of liquid medical oxygen sent to Karnataka. The decision came after 24 virus patients died on Monday in a government hospital. It is unknown how many of them perished because of the shortage of oxygen, but an inquiry is underway.


So far, Modi has delegated liability for combating the virus in this latest outbreak to under-resourced state governments, and he has been accused of doing very little. His government has responded that it is doing everything possible in the face of a “once-in-a-century crisis.” Meanwhile, many medical professionals, minority politicians, and even Supreme Court justices are pressing for nationwide bans, claiming that a patchwork of state regulations is inadequate to increase infections.
Experts warn that the surge in Bengaluru is outpacing that of other hard-hit cities such as the capital, New Delhi, and Mumbai. According to Murad Banaji, a mathematician modeling COVID-19 development in India, cases have increased 100-fold since February, citing official numbers. Test positivity has risen to over 30%, showing that the virus is much more severe than reported estimates, he said.
“Disaster was looming by early March when cases rose,” he said. “Bangalore is more than a ticking time bomb — it is amid an explosion.” Bengaluru was classified as Bangalore.


In recent weeks, Northern India, headed by New Delhi, has received much attention, with news channels broadcasting pictures of patients lying on stretchers outside hospitals and mass funeral pyres that flame all night.
The crisis in Karnataka has drawn attention to other southern states dealing with an increase in incidents. In Andhra Pradesh, daily cases have surpassed 20,000 for the past three days, prompting the state to impose new restrictions.

Kerala, which served as a model for dealing with the pandemic last year, went into lockdown on Saturday. With chronic cases exceeding 40,000, the state is increasing money, including turning hundreds of industrial oxygen cylinders into medical oxygen, according to Dr. Amar Fetle, the state’s COVID-19 officer.


“The magnitude of cases from last year to now is different,” he said, noting that rising figures have resulted in further hospitalizations and increased demand on health-care services, with hospitals complete. “It has turned into a race between occupancy and how quickly we can add beds. We are doing everything we can to remain ahead of the virus.”


Infections are on the rise in the southern area, but there has been “less visible outcry” than in the north due to improved health facilities and government programs addressing issues at the neighborhood level, according to Jacob John, professor of community medicine at Christian Medical College, Vellore.


However, as the epidemic has ravaged major cities in waves, smaller towns and communities with tiny links to health services are also at risk.


“These places are becoming affected, which suggests that we may not have seen the worst yet in south India,” he added.


Reference
India’s surge hits southern states, prompts more lockdowns. https://apnews.com/article/india-religion-coronavirus-pandemic-health-18d61c7956cb0bf9f59d975a5f171875

New Covid Guideline

Any of the Centers for Disease Control’s COVID-related guidelines are being relaxed. According to a revision released Tuesday by the CDC, vaccinated citizens may not need to wear a mask sometimes. The CDC has not described “small gathering.” According to the CDC, 30% of Americans are vaccinated. According to the CDC, about 43% of people have received at least one dose of the COVID-19 vaccine.

Reference
CDC mask guidance change: Guidelines eased for fully vaccinated people.https://www.al.com/news/2021/04/biden-expected-to-announce-relaxation-of-outdoor-mask-guidance-reports-say.html

The effectiveness of vaccinations against new variants

The effectiveness of vaccinations against new variants would also dictate when, where, and how often additional shots are needed. According to Pfizer’s latest trial, the two-dose vaccine appears extremely successful for at least six months, and potentially longer. Additionally, six months after receiving the second requisite injection, those that received Moderna’s vaccine retained significant amounts of virus-fighting antibodies. Although the new COVID-19 vaccines are expected to last at least a year, they are unlikely to have lifetime immunity, like measles vaccinations do, according to Dr. Kathleen Neuzil, a vaccine specialist at the University of Maryland. Present vaccinations are targeted against a specific spike protein found in coronaviruses, according to Mehul Suthar of the Emory Vaccine Center. If the virus evolves sufficiently over time, vaccinations may need to be modified to maintain efficacy.The vaccinations tend to be protective against the prominent strains that have arisen, albeit somewhat less so against the one initially discovered in South Africa.

Reference

How long does protection from COVID-19 vaccines last?,https://www.woodtv.com/covid-19-vaccine/how-long-does-protection-from-covid-19-vaccines-last/

Diet for Longevity and Good Health

The American Heart Association recommends a diet such as this for longevity and good health. The American Heart Association is certain that these days are the perfect conditions for cultivating a healthy diet and exercise routine. The research determined that getting enough food and exercise during your middle age is vital for long-life to maintain heart protection when you age approaches a golden years. Metabolic syndrome seems to be greatly reduced in individuals who followed these two eating habits in their forties. Additionally, Dr. Kris-Ether says to add plant-based ingredients including almond and sunflower seed butters It’s much easier to maintain a plant-based diet while you eat meals. When dining out, there could be less healthy food on display that is not covered with excess oil or sugar.

Reference

This One Diet Can Help You Live Longer, Says American Heart Association. https://www.eatthis.com/news-one-diet-help-you-live-longer/

Three hundred health initiatives have been introduced

More than three hundred health initiatives have been introduced under the Trump presidency. The little-used statute recognized as the Congressional Review Act helps a new government to oversee the revocation of the regulations. However, Congress has not attempted to use it to date, and the president has not requested it. The legislation extends, with a few variations, to policies concluded between 21 August 2020 and 20 January 2021. It is only valid for the first 60 parliamentary days of the current Congress.

In 2017, Republicans abrogated a family planning policy by the Congressional Review Act. The administration of Biden may well be the one to assess it. Using the act is dangerous, too. No administration will issue an “equivalent” rule under its provisions. Many revisions to Trump’s agenda are part of broader legislation affecting a wide range of topics. The Senate also has a chief for the Management and Budget Bureau to confirm, and the current Secretary for Health and Human Services, Xavier Becerra, was sworn in last week.

Congress could shift to the Act of Congressional Review. The act was not included during the transfer from Obama to Biden. For both the Biden government and the new Congress, the change process was turbulent. It is not too late for Congress to apply the act to a Trump law at the last minute, which allows HHS to revise 18,000 regulations. This might be a cleaner approach to avoid the sunset clause, which asks for a range of laws to be checked.

Reference

How Biden Could Quickly Undo Trump Era Health Policies, https://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2021/03/26/981410515/how-biden-could-quickly-undo-trump-era-health-policies

Thomas Jefferson

This book addresses President Thomas Jefferson’s life, his wedding at Monticello. This book speaks of Jefferson’s view of the American Revolution, his path to the presidency, religious beliefs, values, his perspective on Christianity, Jefferson’s Bible, views of the Quran, Muslims in America, and views on slavery with a genealogical chart of descendants. Click on the link to Amazon if you want to purchase.

A significant effect on the risk of type 1 diabetes

European vitamin D deficiency has limited effects on the likelihood of type 1 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is an inflammatory disorder in which the body’s capacity to metabolize glucose is compromised. Worldwide, the incidence of this disease under the age of 14 is projected to increase by 3% per year. There are no drugs proven to be able to help prevent type 1 diabetes. According to the American Diabetes Foundation, over 1.6 million Americans have diabetes.

There does not seem to be a significant impact of vitamin D on type 1 diabetes, although smaller effects can occur. Even though it cannot be ruled out that decreased amounts of lifelong calcitriol, an active source of vitamin D, could be correlated with the condition, the study’s results left open the possibility. The researchers state, “they” before more data from major randomized control trials suggest that vitamin D supplementation cannot be used as a preventative measure.

References

Low Vitamin D Levels In Europeans Does Not Raise Risk Of …. https://www.forbes.com/sites/anuradhavaranasi/2021/02/28/low-vitamin-d-levels-in-europeans-does-not-raise-risk-of-type-1-diabetes-study-shows/

Vitamin D levels and risk of type 1 diabetes: A Mendelian …. https://journals.plos.org/plosmedicine/article?id=10.1371/journal.pmed.1003536

Super-infection cases

Super-infection cases, in which a huge number of individuals are concurrently contaminated, are already a typical occurrence of the COVID-19 pandemic. The spread of a single super-spread event—a two-day international business conference held in Boston in February 2020—generated more than 90 additional investigations. Control mechanisms are important for super-spreading incidents to continue as they are.

Reference

Superspreading drives the COVID pandemic — and could help to tame it. https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-021-00460-x

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