Interleukin-1 has been involved as a mediator of chronic pericarditis. A phase 3 trial of rilonacept was performed in patients with acute symptoms and systemic inflammation. During the run-in period, the median time for pain resolution or near-resolution was 5 days, and the median time for normalization of CRP was 7 days. Injection site reactions and upper respiratory tract infections were the most common adverse events. Among patients with chronic periecarditis, treatment resulted in rapid resolution and a slightly lower risk of recurrence than placebo. The most common side effects were injection site reactions and upper respiratory tract infections.
Phase 3 Trial of Interleukin-1 Trap Rilonacept in Recurrent Pericarditis. https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa2027892